The term will be used throughout this chapter. Ibid, Hadeeth # 1689, p.539. Translated by me. It also establishes the unique position of the human as the crown of creation. John Hick and Edmund Meltzer(Eds. Yet, the main beneficiary of these bounties is the human. Muslims are required to behave Islamically in their business dealings because Allah Himself is witness to their transactions: It is not unlawful in Islam to “borrow” so long as no interest is involved. And if they told lies and hid some defects, their bargain would be deprived of Allah’s blessing” 34. Meaning of business ethics. Quoted in Al-Qaradawi, op.cit., p.293.Translated by me. Justice, honesty, and public welfare are the pillars of Islamic business ethics. “ Allah has ordained excellence in everything….”25 And if they spoke the truth and made clear [the defects of the goods], then they would be blessed in their bargain. “And He has subjected to you, as from Him, all that is in the heavens and on earth: behold, in that are signs indeed for those who reflect.” [Qur’an, 45:13]. Hajj season nears end with no COVID-19 at holy sites, Hajj 2020: What you need to know about this years pilgrimage, 9 inspiring Muslim women shattering stereotypes, Muslim Women Are Fighting To Redefine Islam as a Religion of…, Know These Great Women of Islamic History, 5 Employment Rights Muslims Should Know About, Teachings of the Prophet (pbuh) in regards to doing business, Islamic Principles that Guarantees Business Success. “Charity is not permissible for [someone who is] rich [i.e. Translated by me. n.d. Some general guidelines govern the Islamic code of ethics with relation to both one’s daily life and business conduct. This rule applies to the immediate reward in this life as well as the deferred reward in the hereafter. V. QUR’ANIC INDUCEMENTS TO STUDY AND EXPLORE. In a sweeping statement, the Qur’an indicates that everything on earth, and even in the heavens was created for the benefit of mankind: “It is He who has created for you all things that are on earth; moreover His design comprehended the heavens for He gave order and perfection to the seven firmaments; and of all things he has perfected knowledge.” [Qur’an, 2:29], “And He has subjected to you as from Him all that is in the heavens and on earth: behold in that are signs indeed for those who reflect.” [Qur’an, 45:13]. There are two primary sources of normative Islamic teachings. Riyadh Al-Hadeethah, Riyadh, 1981. These values have two major roots: (1) belief in and devotion to Allah (God), and (2) the earthly trusteeship … Allah is the only Creator, Sustainer and Cherisher of the Universe. Permissibility of lawful trade : The Qur’an explicitly states that trade in itself is permissible, Prohibition of trading in “unlawful” items, Refraining from hiding any known defect in an item offered for sale. Enabling the implementation of Allah’s Law with a view to saving humanity from misery and suffering. The pursuit of excellence in work is not motivated, not only by material reward, but also by the pursuit of Allah’s pleasure. , No. Translated by me. what one should do or abstain from doing. The result of such belief is that self-policing becomes the primary motive to avoid “evil” or “wrong”, more so than mere social controls which are incapable of policing everything. Al-Albani, Muhammad N.[complier], Silsilat Al-Ahadeeth Al-Saheehah [In Arabic], Al-Maktab Al- 5. The Qur’an encourages spending [as opposed to hoarding], whether for one’s own needs, those of his dependents, close relatives and for charity at large. Another issue relating to consumption, is credit financing, particularly the modern system of charge cards. It is the same term used by Christian Arabs and in Arabic Bibles. Khadduri, Majid: The Islamic Conception of Justice … Businessethics also vary from one person to another. for food], or one who cuts a tree for no good reason. 7. n.d.,Vol.1, Hadeeth #1690, p.539. ❋   Delaying giving any person their due despite one’s financial ability to do so, usually using a person’s goodwill to one’s advantage. 36. Quoted in Al-Qaradawi, op.cit.,p.151. In any case, it refers to the One and Only Creator, Sustainer and Cherisher of the Universe. This may be illustrated by the instructions of Prophet Muhammad (P) that if the Day of Judgment begins while one is planting a tree, he should complete his task first. [Qur’an, 2:168]. Islam relates this profession to basic and core objective of the human life and of Islam itself. Translated by me. (d) To pay whatever is due on property (Zakah) as determined by the Ultimate Owner (Allah). Does What We Eat Really Affect Our Health? It is that “breath” which endows the human with the innate spiritual and moral qualities. It is noted that the above passage places lawfulness ahead of goodness. Muhammad, Khuluq Al-Muslim [In Arabic], Dar Al-Bayaan, Kuwait, 1970, p.51.Translated by me. Translated by me. 2, Hadeeth 2174, p.734. Commonly, however, credit cards are used as a form of “borrowing” with interest added to the principal. Birnamij Silsilat Kunuz Al-Sunnah I, Al-Jami’ Al-Sagheer Waziyadatih, First Edition, 1410 A.H. [computer software], Ahadeeth #3914, 6298, 4212, and 6297 respectively. It is those who are endowed with understanding that receive admonition. SOURCES OF ISLAMIC BUSINESS ETHICS There are two sources to be used as a guide to business ethics in Islam, namely the Quran and the Sunnah. building a noisy factory in the middle of a residential area] as restricted currently by zoning regulations. In order to apply the worldview discussed in the first five sections of this chapter to specific areas of business ethics, an examination of the nature of ethics in Islam was discussed, paving the way for the exposition of Islamic ethics in the traditional areas of production, consumption and distribution. 2. This signifies that it is Allah-determined lawfulness that defines what is “good” or wholesome. This issue is examined next. “The priority of a scholar over a worshipper (without understanding) is like the superiority of the moon over other stars.”. Abdul-Baqi, Sunan Ibn Majah [in Arabic], op.cit., Vol.2, Hadeeth # 2341, P.784.Transl. That sense of ultimate responsibility is exemplified in the following Qur’anic warning: “And fear a Day when you will be returned to Allah. Productive resources are not to be left idle in the name of private ownership, especially resources that are crucial to the lives of people. According to Rob Briffault, Roger Bacon was one of the apostles of Muslim science to Europe. (b) Developing the spiritual and intellectual elements and bringing them into harmony with Divine will through conscious and committed submission to Allah This harnessing, in turn requires the acquisition of knowledge and the understanding of Alllah’s creation and bounties, a matter which is regarded as highly commendable by the Qur’an. There is another very important code of Islamic business ethics is truthfulness. While both versions of the story are similar, there are significant differences concerning what happened after “eating from the forbidden tree”, According to the Qur’an, Adam and Eve acknowledged their mistake, prayed for forgiveness and were forgiven. Setting an ideal example for the Muslim businessman in the arena of life. They have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not and ears wherewith they hear not. Written by: Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Shah Mass Janazahs and burials ... Muslims all over the globe hold two opinions about when to o ... From the practically universal perspective of the nearly 1.6 ... Love is one of the most central attributes of God. Moderate spending is necessary to generate jobs and contribute to economic activities and development. Badawi, Jamal A., “The Earth and Humanity” in John Hick and Edmund Meltzer(Eds. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).” Qur’an 49:13. Quoted in Al-Ghazali. “We have honored the children of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favors above a great part of Our creation.” [Qur’an, 17:70], A significant symbol of this honor was the command of Allah to the angels to bow down to Adam: For an excellent and detailed treatment of this topic, see Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf, Dawr Al-Qiyam Wal-Akhlaaq Fi Al-Iqtisaad Al-Islaami [in Arabic], Maktabat Wahbah, 1995. The following are illustrations from Hadeeth to illustrate this aspect of work ethics. 3, Hadeeth # 350, pp.197-198. While these sources focus on broader and guiding principles, they also contain injunctions that are more specific due to their importance. It was previously indicated [section V] that the Qur’an clearly and explicitly stimulates research, development and improvement of the quality of life through the wise use and harnessing of the resources which Allah created for the benefit and comfort of the humankind. ❋   Setting unjust conditions and exploiting the needs of the employees and other people—which can lead to monopoly. Khan, Muhammad M. [Translator], Translation of the Meaning of Sahih Al-Bukhari, Maktabat Al-Riyadh Al-Hadeethah, Riyadh, 1981, Vol. 3, Hadeeth # 3451, p.272.Translated by me. 31. This makes ownership of resources a social function, rather than an absolute right. It eloquently and effectively sums up the concepts of freedom of choice, temptation, decision-making, erring, realization of error, repentance and forgiveness. And the moon We have measured for it mansions (to traverse) till it returns like the old (and withered) lower part of date-stalk. establishing a factory in a residential area), or preventing access to natural resources (e.g. Properly implemented, one’s sense of responsibility before Allah avoids the attitudes of “get away with whatever you can so long as you don’t get caught”, or even the attitude of taking advantage of legal or administrative gaps or flaws to maximize one’s utility at the expense of society. It is lawful, in the opinion of many contemporary Muslim scholars to use “charge Cards”, it is conditional on the payment of the entire balance by the due date so as to avoid the payment of any interest. One’s conception of human nature and his/her understanding and acceptance of the purpose of creation and the role of Khalifah determine how one sees his/her relationship to the natural and social order. 3. The Qur’an lays the foundation of understanding and harnessing the Allah-given resources in numerous areas of economic pursuits. In fact, the restrictions on the pilgrim not to hunt an animal for food or even pluck a tree leaf is a form of training on how to live in harmony with all the creation of Allah. One aspect of learning encouraged in the Qur’an is the experimental approach. Ethical Guidelines for Muslims in Business. [Qur’an, 2:271] Prophet Muhammad (P) included among the highest acts of piety, “one who gave a charity in secret so that his left hand did not know what his right hand spent.”10 As avoidance of boastfulness and advertising is a fruit of sincerity and love of Allah, it is a common virtue taught by all prophets to their followers. Implementation of Islamic business ethics are closely related and influenced by the teachings of Islam. Order”, in Humanomics, vol. And extension of this broad concept of ‘worship’ is the absence in Islam of any artificial compartmentalization of the various aspects of human living. In fact, the term “religion” is an imperfect translation of the Arabic term “deen” which means literally a way of living. A few examples may illustrate this. This ethic of spending has economic implications. Unity of the basic Divine message to mankind which was communicated in various revelatory forms. Tawheed also means belief in the absolute perfection of Divine Attributes, one of which is perfect knowledge, even of the most secret thoughts of the heart. Moore, Keith, The Developing Embryo: Clinically Oriented Embryology The Developing (c) Realizing the consequences of obedience and disobedience to Allah. The human is regarded as neither a fallen angel nor and ascending animal. Rites and devotional acts do have their place. Enforcement mechanisms of Islamic business ethics begin with the individual. Abdul-Hameed, Muhammad M., Sunan Abi-Dawood [in Arabic], Al-Maktabah Al-Asriyyah, Beirut, Abu-Ghoddah, Abdul-Fattah [editor], Sunan Al-Nasaa’i, Maktab Al-Matboo’aat Al- Islaamiyyah, Its goal is to help Muslims engaged in business to act in accordance with the Islamic system of ethics. As such, It is useful to begin with an exposition of Islam’s conception of Allah. This may explain why Prophet Muhammad summed up his mission in the following words: 32. A link between production and consumption is distribution. Even on Fridays, when a mid-day mandatory congregational prayer is performed, the Muslim may “disperse in the land and seek of the bounties of Allah” [62:10]. Islamic Business Ethics And Practices Of Islamic Banks: Perceptions Of Islamic Bank Employees In Gul.pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on … The Qur’an summarizes the purpose of creation of humanity in the following verse: “I have only created Jinns and humankind that they may worship [serve] me.” [Qur’an, 51:56] [Qur’an, 83: 1-6], The Prophet addressed the problem of cheating in more than one Hadeeth. If this is the case, then it is essential to be clear about the sources of such normative practices, sources which will be frequently referred to in this chapter. Abu-Ghoddah, Abdul-Fattah [editor], Sunan Al-Nasaa’i, Maktab Al-Matboo’aat Al- The real issue pertains to the macro-economics implications of the manner of utilizing resources in the context of a given prioritized social and economic needs. The vivid flash of His lightning well-nigh blinds the sight.” [ Qur’an, 24:43], “And a sign for them is the night: We withdraw therefrom the day and behold they are plunged in darkness; And the sun runs its course for a period determined for it: that is the decree of the Exalted in Might the All-knowing. This is hardly the case in credit financing, whether for the purposes of production or consumption. The outcome of this paper emphasised that, by incorporating Islamic labour code and business ethics based on the principle of maqasid shari[a, business does not only serve as a purely profit-oriented entity but will also be a more socially-responsible entity that will make profit in a responsible and ethical manner by respecting its employees and people within its sphere of influence. (a) Legitimacy of the method of acquisition of property, excluding theft, extortion, cheating of other illegitimate dealings, from the Islamic perspective. , No.1 They are presumed to be valid for all times and places. Abdul-Baqi, Sunan AI-Timidhi, AI-Maktabah AI-Tijariyyah, Makkah, n. The Qur’an exhort people to “go about in the spacious sides of the earth and to eat of His provision” [67:15]. And they carry their heavy loads to lands that you could not (otherwise) reach except with souls distressed: for your Lord is indeed Most Kind, Most Merciful. 18. Translated by me. England, 1991, p5-18 and Badawi, Jamal A., “The Earth and Humanity” in The Qur’anic exhortations do not limit themselves to physical resources. Khan, Muhammad M.[Translator], Translation of the Meaning of Sahih Al-Bukhari, Maktabat Al-Riyadh Al-Hadeethah, Riyadh, 1981, Vol. Indeed, Allah does not like transgressors.” The Prophet was once asked by his companions “Why don’t you set prices [of goods] for us?. “All who obey Allah and the Messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of Allah, of the Prophets, the sincere [Lovers of Truth], the martyrs and the righteous. However, attempting to “snatch” a customer who has already negotiated a deal with another seller is regarded as unethical, unless the earlier negotiation broke down or was cancelled for some other reason. On the other hand, monopolies which are designed to create an artificially higher price or to create artificial shortages are forbidden. Likewise, one’s attitudes toward ecology are the prudent use of the infinite time scale and the loftiest objective, to reach for Allah. Aleppo, Syria, 1994. and We sent down iron in which is (material for) mighty war, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help His cause and help Its messengers though unseen, for Allah is full of strength, exalted in Might (and able to enforce His will).” [Qur’an, 57:25]. Saliheen. ]2 and dictated word-for-word by Archangel Gabriel. [Qur’an, 96:1]. 1. “Behold! Briffault, Rob, The Making of Humanity, quoted in Waheed, K., Islam and The Origins of Modern Science, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1978, p. 29. At the same time, it is also the Sunnah of the Prophet and Messenger. “ I was not sent except to perfect moral characters”15, The Qur’an does not speak of Iman [faith] as an abstract concept or a quality that is independent of action. Tawheed is an Arabic term, which has often been translated into English as “monotheism”; the belief in One God, as opposed to dualism, Polytheism or Atheism. “0 you who believe! It is this type of monopolies that that the Prophet condemned, especially in respect to foodstuff. “ Whoever believes in Allah and the [life] hereafter, let him be hospitable to his guest, and whoever believes in Allah and the [life] hereafter, let him not hurt his neighbor, and whoever believes in Allah and the [life] hereafter, let him say something beneficial or remain quite”.17. Journal of Religious Ethics, m/2 (Fall, 1983), contains several excellent articles dealing with Islamic ethics. Translated by me. (hand) spent…” (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim) as quoted in A. AI-Nawawi, Riyadh Al- We must work to decrease our costs in order to charge reasonable prices. 3 [p] is an abbreviation of “peace be upon him”, a formula that Muslim use when the name Translated by me. That role, in turn, is called “worship” in the Qur’an [51:56]. In addition to the minimum prescribed Zakah, open general charity is much encouraged. Having understood the concept of ethics and seen the different schools of moral philosophy, it is now time to focus on the ethical philosophy of Islam. For example, the production of wines or other intoxicants is prohibited in Islam, wines are not regarded as a commodity of value. Translated by me. Ethics in Islam * Islam places the highest emphasis on ethical values in all aspects of human life. And you will be returned to the knower of the unseen and the witnessed, and He will inform you of what you used to do” [9:105]. As the most important pillar of Islamic teachings is belief and devotion to Allah [Allah], the concept of Tawheed was explained and its implications explored. Then He causes to grow therewith produce of various colors: then it withers; you will see it grow yellow; then He makes it dry up and crumble away. Say: Have you any (certain) knowledge? Translated by me. “Have hearts [minds] wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not. Then We placed him/her as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest firmly fixed; then We made the sperm into (something that) clings (or clot); the of that clot We made a (fetus) into (a chewed-like) lump; then We made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature; so blessed be Allah the Best to create!” [Qur’an,23:12-14] 13. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. 39. 2:35-37, 7:19-25, 20:120-122] . ISLAMIC ETHICS IN THE AREA OF DISTRIBUTION. This results in greater sensitivity to the needs of the future generations. Al-Ghazali, Muhammad, Khuluq Al-Muslim, op.cit., p.6. Yet, the concept of ‘worship’ in Islam is much more comprehensive than the common meaning attached to the term. Waheed, K.A., Islam and the Origins of Modern Science, Islamic Publication Ltd., Lahore Pakistan, Islam, Commerce, and Business Ethics Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad Minaret of Freedom Institute Plenary address at the Loyola Institute for Ethics and Spirituality in Business International Ecumenical Conference (June 10-12, 2004) INTRODUCTION Islam is the only major world religion founded by a businessman, although, in a sense, They do encourage the study and understanding of natural laws such as the alternation of day and night, forecasting rainfall and astronomical phenomena. It is better, however, to pay in secret. in the case of a minor). The human may even descend to a position, which is less than that of animals. ” [Qur’an, 32:6-9]. Ethics of distribution may be summarized in the following: The Qur’an warns those who violate this injunction:“Woe to those who give less [than due]. The basic rule in consumption is that everything is deemed lawful, unless there is evidence to the contrary. 12. Translated by me. Then will you see rain issue forth from their midst. IX. This chapter focuses mainly on widely accepted principles and norms relating to business ethics as stipulated in the two primary sources of Islam. Orders will be processed speedily and… (ch 03 Rezaee) Governance, ethics and wellbeing Ethics from Islamic perspective Views of al-Ghazzali on Ethics Ethics may be defined as the set of moral principles that distinguish what is right from what is wrong. It is interesting to not that in that embryonic stage the fetus looks exactly like that due to the emergence of “somites” or early formation of the spinal column. Abu Hurairah ra from the Prophet Muhammad said: The Qur’an affirms also the entitlement of reward that is commensurate with effort [7:170; 3:136; 99:7 and 46:19]. Ibid, p. 152. While the words of Hadeeth are not those of Allah [verbatim], they are believed, however, to be another form of revelation to the Prophet [p], in meaning only. 2, Hadeeth # 2154, p.728. This broad definition explains why Islam is more than a “religion” in the commonly limited meaning, which concerns itself mainly with the spiritual and ritual aspects of life. Both primary sources provide broad principles and guidelines in conducting the normative Islamic life. Code Of Ethics for the Employees of Islamic Financial Institutions 4 Integrity is a value dear to Islam as one is required to be honest and truthful in their actions. He was one of the Jinn, and he broke the Command of his Lord.” [Qur’an 18:50], This position of honor is closely tied to the fulfillment of one’s role as ‘trustee’ of Allah and as a free agent. By educating ourselves and our community, we will begin to develop a society of Muslims who will not only be fair dealers to fellow Muslims, but will also become prime examples to all who deal with our Ummah. As individuals vary in the extent of their “fear of Allah” and their motivation for righteousness, other sanctions are necessary. The issue here is not the permissibility of production of luxury items, which is not unlawful. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Knowledge, “…Say: Are those equal who know and those who do not know? Hence, production is restricted by the following conditions: Whatever arrangement made with one’s “brother”, the message of this 14. Religiously, the term means to achieve peace; with Allah [Allah] 1 ; with oneself [inner peace] and with the creation of Allah through submission to Allah; putting one’s trust in Him and acceptance of His guidance and injunctions. Indeed, one of the main challenges to humanity is to relate and harmonize such activities under divine guidance. 2, Hadeeth # 2195, p.739. This chapter examined the subject from the foundational normative perspectives. 1978. 1, Hadeeth # 425, p. 147.Tramslated by me. Abdul-Baqi, Muhammad F., Sunan Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Maktabah Al-Tijaariyyah, Makkah, ❋   Changing the original purpose of the agreement in the event of disputes and interpreting the agreement texts to one’s advantage. (c) That the owner should be mentally capable of looking after his/her property or else a guardian may act on his/her behalf (e.g. As such, ethics is not one of its “compartments”, but something at its very core. Islamic teachings strongly stress the observance of ethical and moral code in human behaviour. Who, when they take a measure from people [as buyers], they take in full. The human is born into this world owning nothing that he/she earned and we depart from. It was indicated earlier that Islam is more than a “religion” in the common restricted sense. Translated by me. As such, individual and collective decision-making is guided by a time scale, which is not limited by one’s life span, the life of one or more generations, or even the life of all generations. 16. In the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day there are indeed signs for persons of understanding. As such, the use of such ownership is permissible as qualified by the conditions of the “trust”. 22 One may wonder as to what is the point of planting something that cannot immediately benefit the planter, and why plant a tree whose “fruits” may never be reaped? Business and ethics are not separate, rather they are interconnected. More specifically related to human pursuits on earth, whether in economic or other spheres is the concept of the human; its nature and purpose of existence. Khan, Muhammad , op.cit., Vol. See for example, the Qur’an 32:6-9 The Qur’an promises: I, Barmarick Publications, N.Humberside, Al-Ghazali. business growth, which also are commended by the Islamic imperative. Therefore, the values and ethics of Islam played an important role in entrepreneurial activities and thus creating entrepreneurs who fear Him. ❋   Choosing partners on the basis of social status and authority and not on the basis of righteousness and high morals. Glory to thee! Indeed, the use of intellect and reason is not only accepted, but also urged. This is based on the instruction of the Prophet : 1. He began the creation of the human with clay. What is the nature of the human and why is he/she here on earth? Birnamij Silsilat Kunuz Al-Sunnah I, Al-Jami’ Al-Sagheer Waziyadatih First Edition, [computer software], 1410 A.H. (1990) An example of this was the prophet’s critical reaction to a companion who was using an excessive amount of water to make his ablution for prayers. As the human is the trustee of Allah on earth, it follows that his/her actions in the social order must be in accordance with the conditions of that trust. omy. Then every soul will be compensated for what it earned, and they will not be wronged [i.e. This conception may be summed up in the key term Tawheed; the cornerstone of Islam, the foundation of its ethics and approach to life and the basis of its systems and institutions and the primary determinant of one’s relationship to the natural and social order. Those who conduct business can… If so produce it before Us. Several excerpts in sections II,III and IV were adopted and/or adapted from two papers by Another inevitable enforcement mechanism in any organized society, composed of less than angels, is government controls, monitoring and policing powers. C.E. The growing complexity and diversity of business dealings and of life in general, a legitimate question: what defines a normative Islamic position in respect to a new issue or problem which is not directly addressed in the two primary sources of Islam?. And you have a sense of pride and beauty in them as you drive them home in the evening and as you lead them forth to pasture in the morning. These principles have, as a reference, the decisions and fatawa (legal verdicts) issued by the jurisprudence academies relating to contemporary issues. Explaining how Allah inspired the honey bees, the Qur’an states: “Then eat of all the produce (of the earth) and find with skill the spacious paths of your Lord: there issues from within their bellies a drink of varying colors wherein is healing for people: verily in this is a sign for those who give thought.” Hence contribute further to development fellowship. ” [ Qur ’ an [ 51:56 ] lawfulness ahead of.... 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