In his essay "Violence et métaphysique," he pointed to some of Levinas' problematic readings of his teachers and regretted Levinas' preference of speech to writing, from which the speaker is absent, which would be more fitting for a philosophy of alterity. Through its embrace of instrumental reason, Western philosophy displays a destructive and objectifying “will to domination.” Moreover, because instrumental reason does not determine the ends to which it is applied, it can be—and has been—used in the pursuit of goals that are destructive or evil; in this sense, it was responsible for the major crises of European history in the 20th century, in particular the advent of totalitarianism. However, the date of retrieval is often important. He now attempted to leave out the language of ontology and writes about "an-archy," "hostage," "obsession," "persecution," and "substitution." The command stemming from the "face," that is never a sole object of vision, is: "Thou shalt not murder." Levinas was the first Jewish thinker in modern times to approach the Talmud philosophically, mainly its aggadic parts, as a source of wisdom relevant for our day. Levinas prefers to think of philosophy as the "wisdom of love" rather than the "love of wisdom" (the usual translation of the Greek "φιλοσοφία")… Western philosophy, for Levinas, has for the most part been an ontology, by which he means that otherness has been reduced perpetually to a system of selfsameness in which nothing other than being can appear (Levinas 2007:43). He is exemplary in his extending "hospitality" to strangers. The principal theme of Lévinas’s work after World War II is the traditional place of ontology as “first philosophy”—the most fundamental philosophical discipline. In this respect ontology is philosophically inferior to ethics, a field that Lévinas construes as encompassing all the practical dealings of human beings with each other. He spent the academic year 1928–9 in Freiburg, Germany, where he took seminars with Husserl and then with Heidegger. Levinas does not write about God as Being, but as not assumable "illéité" – Illeity (He-hood, from the Latin "ille," that one, the other one), as alterity – the other than other – that ruptures the unity of the I, orienting it toward other human beings. This is Levinas’s first great work of original philosophy, and his descriptions of the ways in which we are always called to be open to and respect and responsive to the experience of others informs much of my thinking. His philosophical writings are considered an important contribution to phenomenology, and his writings on Jewish subjects, including philosophical interpretations of talmudic passages, are studied both as contributions to the philosophy of Judaism and as extensions of his more strictly … The first great critical reaction to Totality and Infinity came from Jacques *Derrida. Our century has seen the man’s face disappear behind the multiplicity of determinations (biological, social and linguistic) that science has revealed: the death of the man announced by Foucault. The Jewish message is one for all humanity. Emmanuel Levinas book. Emmanuel Levinas was born in Lithuania in Kovno (1906-95) to a family who formed an integral part of Kovno’s important Jewish community where he received his education in Hebrew and Russian. Lévinas began his studies in philosophy in 1923 at the University of Strasbourg. Although Levinas does acknowledge Jewish particularity as prototypically refusing totality, he highlights the universal dimension in Judaism. The relationship is not reciprocal as in Martin *Buber, it is asymmetrical. In 1930, Levinas received French citizenship. Encyclopaedia Judaica. Morality in Kant and Levinas, trans. Throughout the body of his work, Levinas contests the dominant modern Western paradigm. Serving as an officer in the French army at the outbreak of World War II, he was captured by German troops in 1940 and spent the next five years in a prisoner-of-war camp. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. S'agit-il d'un drame? Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Originally from Lithuania, he is one of the most famous representatives of continental philosophy. By ... almost cliches, they nevertheless frequently are misunderstood. This desire for totality, according to Lévinas, is a basic manifestation of “instrumental” reason—the use of reason as an instrument for determining the best or most efficient means to achieve a given end. In addition to his philosophic work, Levinas began publishing articles on Jewish subjects. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. 12 Jan. 2021 . Ethics as first philosophy. . Encyclopedia.com. Lescourret, Emmanuel Lévinas (1994); Z. A propos d'un ouvrage récent de Daniel Sibony," in: Revue d'histoire et de philosophie religieuses, 81:1 (2001), 63–79; idem, "Moses Mendelssohn's Jerusalem from Levinas' Perspective," in: M. New, R. Bernasconi, R.A. Cohen (eds. Although he became increasingly critical of the philosophies of his teachers, he continued to use the phenomenological method in his own philosophic work. The renowned French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre indicates that he came to phenomenology through Emmanuel Levinas. To understand his work is also to enter suddenly in the fundamental debates of our time. Specifically, Lévinas says that the human face "orders and ordains" us. In his interpretations of the Talmud, he seemed to be searching for what he called “a wisdom older than the patent presence of a meaning…[a] wisdom without which the message buried deep within the enigma of the text cannot be grasped.”. 2 Language plays the central role in his philosophy, and in view of its centrality, as well, in a variety of … Levinas exhorts his reader to have a mature faith and get rid of one’s primitive and childish views of God. Levinas renewed Jewish thinking and by now occupies an eminent place in the pantheon of modern Jewish thinkers such as Hermann Cohen, Franz Rosenzweig, and Martin Buber. DOI link for Emmanuel Levinas. ISBN 978-1-4020-4124-2; Adina Bozga and Attila Szigeti (2006) "A Century with Levinas. Emmanuel Levinas (1906–1996) has exerted a profound influence on 20th-century continental philosophy. Brunschvicg, of Alsatian origin, achieved a brilliant record at the Lycée Condorcet. A masterful series of interviews with Levinas, conducted by French philosopher Philippe Nemo, which provides a succinct presentation of Levinas's philosophy. Its relationship to the Other is therefore one of totality. After detention in France, he was deported to a pow camp near Hanover, Germany, which bore the infamous number "1492." He developed an early interest in Husserl’s … Lévinas claims that ontology also displays a bias toward cognition and theoretical reason—the use of reason in the formation of judgments or beliefs. Emmanuel Levinas was among the most prominent European Jewish intellectuals in the second half of the 20th century. ), Religion and State in Twentieth-Century Jewish Thought (2005), 409–24 (Heb. Permeated with references to the 'stranger', the 'other' and 'exteriority', the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas signifies a positive understanding of exile. Levinas' entire philosophical project implies therefore an attack on totality, on totalitarian thinking and history. Emmanuel Levinas (1906–1996) has exerted a profound influence on 20th-century continental philosophy. An Introduction (1996); J. Derrida, "Violence et métaphysique: Essai sur la pensée d' Emmanuel Lévinas" (1964), in: L'Écriture et la difference (1967), 117–228; idem, "En ce moment même dans cet ouvrage me voici," in: Laruelle (ed. Five of the ten essays presented here appear in English for the first time. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. Levinas claimed, in 1961, that he was developing a first philosophy. https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/levinas-emmanuel, "Levinas, Emmanuel ); idem, "Teaching Levinas on Revelation," in: R. Jospe (ed. With the exception of the 12th-century Jeu d'Adam,…, Cohen, Hermann Jacques Derrida was one of the most original and influential French philosophers in the contemporary worl…, Brunschvicg, Léon Emmanuel Levinas . In 1929 Levinas was present at the Kant seminar in Davos where Ernst *Cassirer and Heidegger held their famous debate. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. LEVINAS, EMMANUEL (1906–1995), philosopher and Jewish thinker. Ethics as first philosophy. Making Ethical Sense of Useless Suffering with Levinas Emmanuel Levinas, “Ethics as First Philosophy” (), in The Levinas Reader, ed. Levinas made German phenomenology known in France. Ethics, which Levinas wanted to discuss philosophically, is for him attested to in the holy life, to which the Bible, Midrashim, and Talmud testify. Emmanuel Lévinas (January 12, 1906 – December 25, 1995) was a French, Jewish philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ), Paradigms in Jewish Philosophy (1997), 257–79; idem, "La philosophie de Lévinas, sacrificielle et naïve? The influence of the Hebrew Bible and other Jewish writings on early French literature is limited. At this time, the idea of God and the problem of the human experience of revelation grew in importance in his thinking. Perhaps just as importantly, Levi… ), Myth in Judaism (Eshel Beer-Sheva, 4; 1996), 393–405 (Heb. However, he became more and more dissatisfied with the thought of his teachers. ), La lettura ebraica delle Scritture (1995), 465–95; idem, "Criticism of the 'Myth' of Unio Mystica in E. Levinas," in: H. Pedayah (ed. ), Emmanuel Lévinas – Philosophie et judaïsme (Pardès, 26; 1999) 101–4; R.A. Cohen (ed. After having suffered from Ukrainian antisemitism, the family returned to Kovno in July 1920, where he attended the Jewish lyceum that was organized by Joseph Carlebach and directed by Moses Schwabe. C. Vanhove-Romanik (1985); C. Chalier, Lévinas: L'Utopie de l'humain (1993); idem, Pour une morale au-delà du savoir: Kant et Levinas (1998) = What Ought I To Do? Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Emmanuel Levinas has been Professor of Philosophy at the Sorbonne and the director of the Ecole Normale Israelite Orientale. One can and in conditions of real life in society inevitably does compromise on the ethical call, but the call remains Levinas does not strive for harmonization between his "professional" and "confessional" writings, but discusses one truth beyond ontology that can be discussed in different manners. ), Lévinas e la cultura del xx secolo (Cultura Filosofica e Scienze Umane, 3), (2001), 209–35 (= Daat, 50–52 (2003), 423–39); idem, "Ethics, Politics and God in the Writings of E. Levinas," in: Democratic Culture, vol. He grew up in a Jewish home that was open to European culture. ), The Path of the Spirit. Emmanuel Lévinas, (born December 30, 1905 [January 12, 1906, Old Style], Kaunas, Lithuania—died December 25, 1995, Paris, France), Lithuanian-born French philosopher renowned for his powerful critique of the preeminence of ontology (the philosophical study of being) in the history of Western philosophy, particularly in the work of the German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889–1976). Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. ); idem, "La presenza biblica nella cultura ebraica contemporanea: M. Buber – F. Rosenzweig – E. Levinas," in: S.J. . He introduced phenomenology to France through his translation of Husserl’s Cartesian Meditations into French, and he developed a lifelong friendship with Maurice Blanchot. Parallel to his "professional" (i.e., philosophic) writings, Levinas also published a vast body of "confessional" writings that treat Judaism, religious themes, and Talmud. In recent years, the debate about its relevance has been revived, more specifically about his role within t… Only a heaven empty of … First, he exercised a formative influence upon an entir…, Rosenzweig, Franz ." His remarkable Talmudic Readings were first delivered at the annual meetings of the Colloque des Intellectuels Juifs de Langue Française, which started in 1957; they were later collected and published. ), The Provocation of Levinas: Rethinking the Other (1988); R. Burggraeve, From Self-Development to Solidarity: An Ethical Reading of Human Desire in its Socio-Political Relevance According to Emmanuel Levinas, transl. His two major works are Totality and Infinity (1961) and Otherwise than Being (1974). Figures of Estrangement (1997); M.A. Dialogue and Difference (2004), 133–56; idem, "Religion and State in the Thought of Emmanuel Levinas," A. Ravitzky (ed. Au-delà du principe d'identité (1991); A. Peperzak (ed. Encyclopaedia Judaica. Insofar as the moral debt one owes to the Other can never be satisfied—Lévinas claims that the Other is “infinitely transcendent, infinitely foreign”—one’s relation to him is that of infinity. Emmanuel Levinas . He spent the academic year 1928–29 at the University of Freiburg, where he attended seminars by Edmund Husserl (1859–1938) and Heidegger. According to Lyotard, Levinas is the author that was able to give the most radical description of the “hostage,” a subjectivity that is always already constituted from the inside, as an interiority that is however always already exposed. ); idem, "La notion de la révélation dans la 'théologie des profondeurs' de Heschel et la métaphysique éthique de Lévinas," in: G. Rabinovitch (ed. 1906–d. In his magnificent work “God and Philosophy” Emmanuel Levinas develops a new understanding of transcendence. Emmanuel Levinas, Totality and Infinity. He found the idea of rupturing totality in Franz *Rosenzweig's Star of Redemption (1921) which he read before World War ii, and he admitted to having made extensive use of Rosenzweig's anti-totalitarian thought. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. The philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas is the result of the influence of the group of the three H (G. W. Hegel, Edmund Husserl, and Martin Heidegger). In the late 1950's and early 1960's, Levinas began to formulate his own philosophy which became increasingly critical of Heidegger's philosophy, and, with his critique of prior phenomenological thinkers and Western philosophy in general, Levinas began to assert the primacy of the ethical relationship with the Other. ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ In the latter, Levinas, according to a phenomenological method, describes how subjectivity … Corrections? His work is based on the ethics of the Other or, in Levinas's terms, on "ethics as first philosophy". ), Textes pour Emmanuel Levinas (1980), 21–60; E. Feron, De l'idée de la transcendance à la question dulangage: L'Itinéraire philosophique d'Emmanuel Lévinas (1992); A. Finkelkraut, La Sagesse de l'amour (1984); R. Gibbs, Correlations in Rosenzweig and Levinas (1992); J. Greisch and J. Rolland (eds. ), Levinas and Buber. Emmanuel Levinas (Kaunas, 1905-Paris, 1996) Lithuanian philosopher of Jewish origin, naturalized French in 1930.He completed his first studies in philosophy in Strasbourg.In 1928 he moved to Freiburg, where he discovered Husserl's phenomenology and Heidegger's thought.In France he attended Leon Brunschvicg's courses at the Sorbonne.At the end of World War II, after a period of … In the 1950s, Levinas emerged from the circle of intellectuals surrounding the philosopher Jean Wahl as a leading French thinker. . Levinas strongly felt the need to leave the "climate" of Heidegger's philosophy, in which the encounter with other human beings was neglected, since Heidegger concentrated upon modes of Being rather than on the intersubjective world. Richard Wolin is an intellectual historian. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Emmanuel Levinas (b. Without presupposing an intimate knowledge of the history of philosophy, Levinas explores the ways in which Plotinus, Descartes, Husserl, and Heidegger have encountered the question of transcendence. Rosenzweig was born in Kassel, Germany,…, Derrida, Jacques In contrast to these teachings, Levinas searches not for totality, but for what ruptures "totality," for what he calls "infinity," "alterity," "discourse," "transcendence," and "exteriority.". Time and the Other and Existence and Existents, which appeared both in 1947, are books that already contain themes like "il y a" (the anonymous and threatening "there is"), sexual relation, paternity, and fecundity that appear in Levinas' greater works, in which he criticized both his teachers, who subsumed the Other under the Same. ), Abraham J. Heschel. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Emmanuel Levinas (1906–95) studied philosophy at Strasbourg University in France. This was the first French book on Husserl. Thus, Levinas makes ethics, respect for others, the first philosophy. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. The human face in Emmanuel Levinas. Levinas retakes Plato's terms of the "Same" and the "Other" and points to the frequent absorption of the Other by the Same in the history of philosophy. Once it is Japheth that visits the tents of Shem, once it is vice versa. Viewed from this perspective, Heidegger’s attempt to develop a new “fundamental ontology,” one that would answer the question of the “meaning of Being,” is misguided, because it continues to reflect the dominating and destructive orientation characteristic of Western philosophy in general. His philosophy places him amongst the most profound thinkers. Books by a top Levinas scholar; The Emmanuel Levinas web page by Peter … Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Emmanuel-Levinas, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Emmanuel Levinas, The New York Times - Emmanuel Levinas, 90, French Ethical Philosopher, San Diego State University - Biography of Emmanuel Levinas. history of science, of philosophy, and of ideas. Heidegger had published in 1927 his Sein und Zeit, a work much appreciated by Levinas. The contact with the Other face to face is one of demand: the Other addresses the I, resisting its powers and appropriation. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: "Emmanuel Levinas," by Bettina Bergo. philosophy. Koyré’s work was threefold. The encounter of the Other via the face is a key to human consciousness, his work as a philosopher and his moral teachings. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Cristian Ciocan & Georges Hansel (2005) Levinas Concordance. In the 1930s he met Paul Ricoeur and also attended Saturday night gatherings in the house of Gabriel Marcel, where he became acquainted with Jean-Paul Sartre and Jacques Maritain. ." 6 (2002), 111–33 (Heb. The face-to-face relation (French: rapport de face à face) is a concept in the French philosopher Emmanuel Lévinas' thought on human sociality. A person needs to understand that God does not promise anything or follow one’s magical thinking about God. ), Ethics as First Philosophy (1995); S. Petrosino and J.Rolland, La Vérite nomade: Introduction à Emmanuel Lévinas (1984); F. Poirié, Emmanuel Lévinas: Qui êtes-vous (1987); T. Wright, The Twilight of Jewish Philosophy: Emmanuel Levinas' Ethical Hermeneutics (1999); E. Wyschogrod, Emmanuel Levinas: The Problem of Ethical Metaphysics (1974); For a bibliography of works by and on Levinas until 1989, see R. Burggraeve, Emmanuel Lévinas: Une bibliographie primaire et secondaire (1929–1985), avec complément 1985–1989 (1990). Springer-Verlag, 951pp. When in midlife Levinas steeped himself in Jewish learning, he was both probing the meaning of Jewish identity in the Galut (Hebrew: “Exile”), or Jewish Diaspora, and searching for remedies for the ostensible deficiencies of mainstream Western philosophy, with its orientation toward theoretical reason and absolute certainty. Husserl's transcendental ego and Heidegger's Dasein were solitary and did not take adequate account of human relations. 2 (2005), 851–65; G.D. Mole, Lévinas, Blanchot, Jabès. Although the phenomenological undertakings of Husserl and Heidegger remain a key point of reference for him, Levinas aims to create a space of transcendence … Levinas played a pioneer role in the dissemination of phenomenology in France. He further tries to avoid the problem of the thematizing of the unthematizable by incessantly unsaying the said (dédire le Dit), because no said may contain the Saying (le Dire) of responsibility. Two years later he published the first substantial French article on Heidegger (a revised version in En découvrant l'existence avec Husserl et Heidegger). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The French philosopher Emmanuel Lévinas (1905–95) attributed the misguided quest for totality to a defect in reason itself. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Emmanuel Levinas (b. Encyclopaedia Judaica. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In 1930 Levinas published his Ph.D. thesis, which he had written under Jean Wahl (Théorie de l'intuition dans la phénoménologie de Husserl). He is known for studying the particular contributors to... During the late 20th century the thought of the French Jewish philosopher. One of his most important works is Totality and Infinity: An essay on exteriority. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1969. There is an interaction between the Greek "love of wisdom" and the Jewish "wisdom of love." He is Distinguished Professor of History at the CUNY Graduate Center, where he has worked since 2000. 1906–d. In Levinas' ethics, the Other with his constitutive strangeness puts the self into question. "Levinas, Emmanuel Un tsaddiq dans la cité (Collection Voix) (2004), 155–86; idem "Buber's and Levinas's Attitudes toward Judaism," in: P. Atterton, M. Calarco, and M. Friedman (eds. D. Banon, La Lecture infinie: Les Voies de l'interprétation midrachique (1987); R. Bernasconi and S. Critchley (eds. Omissions? In his major work, Totality and Infinity (1961), he contended that, as it is used in Western philosophy, reason enforces “domination” and “sameness” and destroys plurality and otherness. In returning to basic deliberations about the idea of infinity, Levinas shows how the infinite can be interpreted as involved in finity but without becoming finity. Although some scholars described Levinas’s philosophical project as an attempt to “translate Hebrew into Greek”—that is, to reconfigure the ethical tradition of Jewish monotheism in the language of first philosophy—he was a relative latecomer to the intricacies of Jewish thought. He subsequently taught at the University of Paris X (Nanterre; 1967–73) and the Sorbonne (1973–78). Description. ), Re-Reading Levinas (1991); R. Bernasconi and D. Wood (eds. 1995) was a French-Jewish thinker known primarily as the philosopher of the ‘other.’ He studied with Husserl and Heidegger in the 1920s. Emmanuel Levinas book. An introduction by Adriaan … Abi Doukhan argues that Levinas's philosophy can be understood as a comprehensive … Ethics as first philosophy. DOI link for Emmanuel Levinas. Sierra (ed. This original and compelling book distills from Levinas's philosophy a wisdom of exile, for the first time shedding a positive light on the condition of exile itself. Ouaknin, Méditations érotiques, Essai sur Emmanuel Lévinas (Collection Métaphora; 1991); idem, Concerto pour quatre consonnes sans voyelles. Abstract. Levinas thought that humanism of the other person and Judaism were compatible, and he considered being Jewish a form of being human. In contrast, because ontology treats the Other as an object of judgments made by theoretical reason, it deals with him as a finite being. Levinas: philosophy of the other published 5–12-2012 ... Emmanuel Levinas turns it around: the ethical call for benevolence is primary, precedes the self and all consideration of self-interest, and protection of one’s interests is a compromise on that. ); idem, "Levinas's Thinking on Religion as beyond the Pathetic: Reflections on the First Part of Difficult Freedom," in: E.L. Fackenheim and R. Jospe (eds. During the 1928–29 academic year he went to nearby Freiburg, Germany, where he studied under Edmund *Husserl and Martin Heidegger. He asks: “What kind of strange magician did you project as the inhabitant of your heaven.” Only an empty heaven allows one to take on the responsibilities of justice in this world. Though he had not yet begun the engagement with traditional Jewish texts that would mark his post-War work, he read Franz Rosenzweig’s The Star of Redemption, along with Protestant theological sources. The Other is never a pure phenomenon, but rather a call, an authoritatively speaking voice that asks for an exile out of the self. He did not conceive the subject as a consciousness, but as welcoming the Other, as "responsibility," "exposure," "witness," and as "in proximity." Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Encyclopedia.com. It calls the subject into "giving and serving" the Other. 1 In spite of such a distinguished recommendation, Levinas’ thought has been little known, and his intriguing philosophy of language offers a major entrée to his position. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. In the 1930s, Levinas continued his philosophical studies, publishing a book on Husserl (The Theory of Intuition in the Phenomenology of Husserl, 1930). In Husserl's phenomenology, the transcendental ego is the source of all meaning (Sinngebung), whereas in Heidegger's fundamental ontology Being as reflected in the beings is everything. Dans la trace d'Emmanuel Lévinas. Updates? Translated by Alphonso Lingis. He was mainly concerned with the question of how to talk about the Other in the language of the Same. With time, and not unconnected to the experience of Hitler's Germany, Levinas developed an ethical thinking that avoids the "allergy" of Western philosophy for the otherness of the Other. Some of these essays on Judaism were collected in Difficult Freedom (1963), in Beyond the Verse (1982), and In the Time of the Nations (1988). In Otherwise than Being, Levinas dealt less with the Other than with the subject. In 1939 Levinas was drafted into the French army and was then captured. The Other is not an alter ego, not to be mastered, but unknowable, enigmatic, refractory to light; the Other's "face" commands not to subsume him. He read the great Russian classics Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Turgeniev, Gogol, Pushkin, and Lermontov. Difficile justice. Levinas’s formal reflections on Jewish thought first appeared in a collection of essays published in 1963 as Difficile liberté (Difficult Freedom). He taught at the University of Poitiers (1961–62), the University of Paris at Nanterres (1962–73), and finally at the Sorbonne (1973–76). In working toward an understanding of "ethics as first philosophy," it will do to examine Husserl and Heidegger, since their … ." Actes du xxxvie Colloque des intellectuels juifs de langue française (1998); S. Handelman, Fragments of Redemption: Jewish Thought and Literary Theory in Benjamin, Scholem, and Levinas (1991); M.-A. Levy, The Other and Responsibility: The Philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas (Heb., 1998); J. Llewelyn, Emmanuel Levinas: The Genealogy of Ethics (1995); S. Malka, Lire Lévinas (1984); idem, Emmanuel Lévinas: la vie et la trace (2002); E. Meir, "The Dimension of the Feminine in Levinas' Philosophy," in: Iyyun – The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly, 43 (1994), 145–52 (Heb. (January 12, 2021). In 1923 Levinas moved to France, where he studied in Strasbourg under people like Maurice Pradines, Henri Carteron, Maurice Halbwachs, and Charles Blondel. J. Todd (2002); F. Ciaramelli, Transcendance et éthique: essai sur Levinas (1989); D. Cohen-Lévinas and S. Trigano (eds. In 1915 the Jews of Kovno were expelled and Levinas attended public high school in Karkhov, Ukraine. ; A. Peperzak ( ed Levinas was among the most famous representatives of philosophy! Revived, more specifically about his role within t… Emmanuel Levinas was present at the University of Freiburg, he... 1994 ) ; idem, `` La philosophie de Lévinas, Blanchot Jabès! How to talk about the Other person and Judaism were compatible, and copy the text for bibliography. 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